Dermatitis and occupational (meth)acrylate contact allergy in nail technicians—A 10-year study
Acrylates and (meth)acrylates, are present in various coatings, plastics, dental prostheses, glass substitutes, and acrylic nails. The (meth)acrylic monomers are potential sensitizers, and can cause occupational and non-occupational dermatitis. Occupational disease is found among printers, dental personnel, fibreglass workers, and nail technicians. The aim of this study was to describe nail technicians investigated for dermatitis, including whether they were contact allergic to (meth)acrylates.
Material and methods
Data on all nail technicians in the department’s test database between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2016 were retrieved. Information on sex, age, atopic dermatitis, years in the profession, localization and duration of dermatitis and patch test results was analysed. Patients were tested with the Swedish baseline series, acrylate series, and a number of patients were also tested with their own workplace materials.
Contact allergy to one or more (meth)acrylates was found in 57% (16/28) of patients; all allergies were classified as occupational and clinically relevant. Eczema confined to the fingers only was more frequent in (meth)acrylate contact allergic patients (p 0.004), while there was no difference with regard to eczema engaging the hand(s). A history of atopic dermatitis was more common in those without (meth)acrylate contact allergy (59% vs 13%; p 0.02).
Our study shows that contact allergy to (meth)acrylates is common in nail technicians, but that it is not the sole cause of dermatitis in this profession. Most contact-allergic patients presented with signs and symptoms within the first year, highlighting the sensitizing potency of (meth)acrylates. This emphasizes that stricter regulations, adequate education and preventive measures should be implemented.